Paris Agreement Adaptation Goal

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[7] Chronology-Adaptation Committee, U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, unfccc.int/adaptation/groups_committees/adaptation_committee/items/7518.php (last visit was April 10, 2016). This article goes beyond mitigation obligations and examines how the adaptation, loss and damage provisions of the Paris Agreement are based on differentiation, in order to enable combined top-down and bottom-up approaches to the overall cooperation objectives of Article 2, set by the UNFCCC and the COP. It describes the fundamental aspects of the Paris Agreement and COP21`s follow-up decision on the treatment of adaptation, loss and damage, which allows the parties to work towards a qualitative goal based on the unique vulnerabilities and capabilities of the parties to respond to the effects of climate change. The Paris Agreement includes adaptation measures among the three objectives of the agreement to “strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.” [17] Later in the agreement, this objective will be implemented by Article 7, with a specific focus on the adaptation efforts that the parties should undertake. With fourteen paragraphs, the adaptation article is the third most important provision of the Paris Agreement – behind only the mitigation at thirty and transparency with fifteen. [48] Kathleen Mogelgaard – Heather McGray, When Adaptation Is Not Enough: Paris Agreement Recognizes “Loss and Damage,” World Res. Inst. (December 24, 2015), www.wri.org/blog/2015/12/when-adaptation-not-enough-paris-agreement-recognizes-“loss-and-damage.” The paragraphs of the Paris Agreement and the COP21 decision rely heavily on the Governance Adaptation Committee. Article 7.7 of the Paris Agreement calls on the contracting parties to take into account Cancun`s current adaptation framework. Paragraphs 41 to 46 of COP21 contain more precise information on how to do so. These paragraphs first direct the Adaptation Committee to review the adaptation processes and to submit recommendations to the COP at the first meeting of the parties to the Paris Agreement. The Adaptation Committee is an institutional regulation within the framework of Cancun, established at COP16 as part of the Cancun agreements.

[41] The objective of the adaptation committee is to “consistently promote the implementation of enhanced accommodation under the Convention.” [42] The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capacities is relevant to this provision, although it is not explicitly mentioned. Common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities are an important principle of international environmental law stemming from the 1992 Earth Summit, which “expresses the need to assess the responsibility for the rehabilitation or mitigation of environmental degradation, both on the basis of a historical contribution to a particular environmental problem and on current capacity.” [24] This was a fundamental element of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. [25] Developing countries have supported the continuation of this historic concept in the Paris Agreement, but have been rejected by industrialized countries (historically the largest emitters of greenhouse gases). Although Article 7 does not explicitly reflect common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, the Paris Agreement mentions this in both the introduction and Article 2, which sets out the overall objectives and objectives of the Paris Agreement. Article 7 aims to help developing countries meet their adaptation goals and requirements. Developing countries should benefit from “continued and enhanced international support” for the implementation of adjustment plans, adaptation notices and other measures. [33] It is important that the article does not indicate who or where the assistance will come from.